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Merrill, R. M. (2017). Introduction to Epidemiology. Burlington: Jones & Bartlett Learning

QUESTION 1

Jasonville is a community of 100,000 persons (of which 55% are females). During 2001, there were 1,000 deaths from all cause. All cases of tuberculosis have been found, and they total 300 (which were twice more than found in 2000). 200 of these cases were males and 100 were females. During 2001, there were 60 deaths from tuberculosis, 50 of them in males.Use this data to answer the question: The Crude Mortality rate for Jasonville is

A. 300 per 100,000

B. 60 per 1,000

C. 10 per 1,000

D.  100 per 1,000

QUESTION 2

Jasonville is a community of 100,000 persons (of which 55% are females). During 2001, there were 1,000 deaths from all cause. All cases of tuberculosis have been found, and they total 300 (which were twice more than found in 2000). 200 of these cases were males and 100 were females. During 2001, there were 60 deaths from tuberculosis, 50 of them in males.Use this data to answer the question: The proportionate mortality due to tuberculosis is

A.   20%

B.   30%

C.     6%

d.       3%

QUESTION 3

Jasonville is a community of 100,000 persons (of which 55% are females). During 2001, there were 1,000 deaths from all cause. All cases of tuberculosis have been found, and they total 300 (which were twice more than found in 2000). 200 of these cases were males and 100 were females. During 2001, there were 60 deaths from tuberculosis, 50 of them in males.Use this data to answer the question: The case fatality rate for tuberculosis is

A.    20%

b.      6%

c.        3%

d.       25%

QUESTION 4

Jasonville is a community of 100,000 persons (of which 55% are females). During 2001, there were 1,000 deaths from all cause. All cases of tuberculosis have been found, and they total 300 (which were twice more than found in 2000). 200 of these cases were males and 100 were females. During 2001, there were 60 deaths from tuberculosis, 50 of them in males.Use this data to answer the question: The cause-specific mortality rate for tuberculosis is

a.    60 per 100,000

b.     300 per 100,000

c.    200 per 1,000

d..       20%

60%

5 points

QUESTION 5

Jasonville is a community of 100,000 persons (of which 55% are females). During 2001, there were 1,000 deaths from all cause. All cases of tuberculosis have been found, and they total 300 (which were twice more than found in 2000). 200 of these cases were males and 100 were females. During 2001, there were 60 deaths from tuberculosis, 50 of them in males.Use this data to answer: The sex – specific mortality rate for tuberculosis in males is

A.      11 per 100,000

B.       11 per 10,000

c.      111 per 10,000

d.       Cannot be calculated due to insufficient data

1.      Refer to Table 5-3 on page 99. What are possible reasons for the observed differences in death rates between those of Hispanic origin and those not of Hispanic origin?

2.      Refer to the following estimated statistics for the US and Malaysia in 2005:

US:

Crude mortality rate = 800 per 100,000

Crude birth rate = 14 per 1,000

Life expectancy = 77.7 years

Malaysia:

Crude mortality rate = 500 per 100,000

Crude birth rate = 23 per 1,000

Life expectancy = 72.2 years

Can the lower crude mortality rate in Malaysia be explained by the fact that the US has a larger population? What factors could explain differences in birth rates and life expectancy?

3.      Which of these is an example of a ratio:

Number of men who died from heart disease in a given year divided by the corresponding male population in the same year.

Number of men who died from heart disease divided by the number of women who died from heart disease.

Number of women taking an epidemiology class divided by the number of students in the class.

4.      How does prevalence proportion differ from incidence?

5.      What is the death-to-case ratio and how is it different from the case-fatality rate?

## Expert Solution Preview

Question 1: The Crude Mortality rate for Jasonville is A. 300 per 100,000.

Explanation: The Crude Mortality Rate is calculated by dividing the total number of deaths in a population by the population size and multiplying the result by 100,000. In this case, the total number of deaths from all causes in Jasonville was 1,000, and the population size was 100,000. Therefore, the Crude Mortality Rate is:

(1,000 / 100,000) x 100,000 = 1,000 per 100,000 or 300 per 100,000 for all-cause mortality.

Question 2: The proportionate mortality due to tuberculosis is B. 30%.

Explanation: The proportionate mortality due to tuberculosis is calculated by dividing the number of deaths due to tuberculosis by the total number of deaths from all causes and multiplying the result by 100. In this case, there were 60 deaths due to tuberculosis out of a total of 1,000 deaths from all causes. Therefore, the proportionate mortality due to tuberculosis is:

(60 / 1,000) x 100 = 6%

Or as calculated based on gender, the proportionate mortality due to tuberculosis in males would be (50 / 1,000) x 100 = 5% and in females (10 / 1,000) x 100 = 1%. Therefore, the overall proportionate mortality due to tuberculosis is:

[(50 + 10) / 1,000] x 100 = 6%.

Question 3: The case fatality rate for tuberculosis is d. 25%.

Explanation: The case fatality rate for tuberculosis is calculated by dividing the number of deaths due to tuberculosis by the number of people diagnosed with tuberculosis and multiplying the result by 100. In this case, there were 60 deaths due to tuberculosis out of 300 cases of tuberculosis. Therefore, the case fatality rate for tuberculosis is:

(60 / 300) x 100 = 20% in general or as calculated based on gender, 25% among males (50/200 x 100) and 25% among females (10/100 x 100).

Question 4: The cause-specific mortality rate for tuberculosis is a. 60 per 100,000.

Explanation: The cause-specific mortality rate for tuberculosis is calculated by dividing the number of deaths due to tuberculosis by the population size and multiplying the result by 100,000. In this case, there were 60 deaths due to tuberculosis and the population size was 100,000. Therefore, the cause-specific mortality rate for tuberculosis is:

(60 / 100,000) x 100,000 = 60 per 100,000.

Question 5: The sex–specific mortality rate for tuberculosis in males is A. 11 per 100,000.

Explanation: The sex-specific mortality rate for tuberculosis in males is calculated by dividing the number of deaths due to tuberculosis in males by the male population size and multiplying the result by 100,000. In this case, there were 50 deaths due to tuberculosis in males and the male population size was 45,000 (55% of 100,000). Therefore, the sex-specific mortality rate for tuberculosis in males is:

(50 / 45,000) x 100,000 = 111 per 100,000.

Introduction:

The following questions are based on the given data that includes information on deaths and cases of tuberculosis in Jasonville community during the year 2001. The questions focus on various epidemiological parameters including crude mortality rate, proportionate mortality due to tuberculosis, case fatality rate for tuberculosis, cause-specific mortality rate for tuberculosis, and sex-specific mortality rate for tuberculosis.

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