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Jordan is a 35-year-old woman who presents with intermittent diarrhea

Jordan is a 35-year-old woman who presents with intermittent diarrhea with cramping that is relieved by defecation. The diarrhea is not bloody or accompanied by nausea and vomiting. Review of past medical history includes some childhood “stomach issues”, HTN, and a recent cholecystectomy. She works in the environmental department of a large hotel. . She denies alcohol and cigarette.

Diagnosis: Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

I. Discuss the epidemiology of IBS?

II. What is your treatment goals for this patient?

III. Discuss First line and second line drug therapy for IBS. Please include pharmacotherapeutic information.

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Introduction:
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder that affects a large number of people worldwide. It is a functional disorder, which means that there is no structural abnormality or tissue damage that can explain the symptoms. As a medical professor, it is important to understand the epidemiology of IBS, treatment goals for patients, and the available drug therapies.

I. Discuss the epidemiology of IBS?
IBS is a prevalent disorder that affects around 10-15% of the global population. It is more commonly found in women and is usually diagnosed during their mid-twenties to mid-forties. The prevalence of IBS increases with age, with the highest rates being reported in people over 50 years of age. There is no significant difference in the incidence of IBS between developed and developing countries. Several factors such as genetics, gut microbiota, environmental factors, and psychological factors have been suggested to contribute to the development of IBS.

II. What is your treatment goal for this patient?
The treatment goal for the patient with IBS is to alleviate symptoms and improve quality of life. The patient’s symptoms of intermittent diarrhea with cramping that is relieved by defecation can be treated with dietary modifications, stress management, and pharmacotherapy. Education and support may also be necessary to help the patient cope with the chronic nature of this disorder.

III. Discuss First line and second line drug therapy for IBS. Please include pharmacotherapeutic information.
First-line drug therapy for IBS involves the use of non-absorbable antibiotics, such as rifaximin. Rifaximin works by altering the gut microbiota to reduce symptoms like gas, bloating, and diarrhea. Other first-line drugs may include antispasmodics like dicyclomine and hyoscyamine, which help to reduce abdominal pain and cramping.

Second-line drug therapy for IBS involves the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) like fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline. These medications are used to treat IBS symptoms such as abdominal pain, constipation, and diarrhea by modulating serotonin levels in the gut.

In conclusion, as medical professors, it is necessary to understand the epidemiology of IBS, treatment goals for patients, and the available drug therapies. With the right management approach, patients with IBS can experience symptom relief and improved quality of life.

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